Stanford encylopedia of philosophy. Oct 15, 2021 · Theology presupposes Christian faith, w...

First published Thu Sep 23, 1999; substantive revision Wed Nov 25,

First published Wed Feb 23, 2005; substantive revision Wed Oct 17, 2018. Pythagoras, one of the most famous and controversial ancient Greek philosophers, lived from ca. 570 to ca. 490 BCE. He spent his early years on the island of Samos, off the coast of modern Turkey. At the age of forty, however, he emigrated to the city of Croton in southern ...Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A A. Developed by Stanford University Philosophy professors, this encyclopedia features hundreds of articles. Link: http ...First published Wed Dec 14, 2005; substantive revision Sat Apr 11, 2020. The term "epistemology" comes from the Greek words "episteme" and "logos". "Episteme" can be translated as "knowledge" or "understanding" or "acquaintance", while "logos" can be translated as "account" or "argument" or "reason ...Jun 23, 2021 · The hallmarks of Ibn Rushd’s work are his convictions that philosophy is capable of demonstrative certainty in many domains, that it is Aristotle who should be our preeminent guide in philosophy, and that philosophy should play a central role within religious inquiry, rather than being an alternative to religion. In the philosophical literature, the term “abduction” is used in two related but different senses. In both senses, the term refers to some form of explanatory reasoning. However, in the historically first sense, it refers to the place of explanatory reasoning in generating hypotheses, while in the sense in which it is used most frequently ...Unlike the short and usually somewhat superficial definitions offered by dictionaries, an online encyclopedia of philosophy could dive deep into its headwords, providing more context and, …Sep 4, 2012 · The nature of beauty is one of the most enduring and controversial themes in Western philosophy, and is—with the nature of art—one of the two fundamental issues in the history of philosophical aesthetics. Beauty has traditionally been counted among the ultimate values, with goodness, truth, and justice. It is a primary theme among ancient ... Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Addeddate. 2020-10-30 06:51:10. Identifier. encyclopedia-of-philosophy_202010. Identifier-ark. ark:/13960/t2m71308t. Ocr. ABBYY …Henri Bergson. Henri Bergson (1859–1941) was one of the most famous and influential French philosophers of the late 19th century-early 20th century. Although his international fame reached cult-like heights during his lifetime, his influence decreased notably after the second World War. While such French thinkers as Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and ...Dec 16, 2015 · First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that “agent” here stands ... After the death of his son, Leland Stanford set up all of his money to go to the Stanford University, which he helped create, to the miners of California and the railroad. The school that Leland and his wife built in memory of their son, wh...7.4.2016 ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy puts other big name internet encyclopedias to shame.Karl Marx (1818–1883) is often treated as a revolutionary, an activist rather than a philosopher, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. It is certainly hard to find many thinkers who can be said to have had comparable influence in the creation of the modern world.Henri Bergson. Henri Bergson (1859–1941) was one of the most famous and influential French philosophers of the late 19th century-early 20th century. Although his international fame reached cult-like heights during his lifetime, his influence decreased notably after the second World War. While such French thinkers as Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and ...Metaphysics. It is not easy to say what metaphysics is. Ancient and Medieval philosophers might have said that metaphysics was, like chemistry or astrology, to be defined by its subject-matter: metaphysics was the “science” that studied “being as such” or “the first causes of things” or “things that do not change”.Mar 9, 2011 · In the philosophical literature, the term “abduction” is used in two related but different senses. In both senses, the term refers to some form of explanatory reasoning. However, in the historically first sense, it refers to the place of explanatory reasoning in generating hypotheses, while in the sense in which it is used most frequently ... Karl Popper is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century. He was also a social and political philosopher of considerable stature, a self-professed critical-rationalist, a dedicated opponent of all forms of scepticism and relativism in science and in human affairs generally and a committed …A modal is an expression (like ‘necessarily’ or ‘possibly’) that is used to qualify the truth of a judgement. Modal logic is, strictly speaking, the study of the deductive behavior of the expressions ‘it is necessary that’ and ‘it is possible that’. However, the term ‘modal logic’ may be used more broadly for a family of ...May 30, 2013 · Confirmation. First published Thu May 30, 2013; substantive revision Tue Jan 28, 2020. Human cognition and behavior heavily relies on the notion that evidence (data, premises) can affect the credibility of hypotheses (theories, conclusions). This general idea seems to underlie sound and effective inferential practices in all sorts of domains ... One of the most hectic jobs out there is working in retail. These employees are usually told to operate as if the customer is always right — and many customers are more than willing to take advantage of this philosophy with some pretty snea...Our implementation of a DRW is embodied by the Stanford Encyclo-pedia of Philosophy (SEP) <http://plato.stanford.edu/>. In the remain-der of this paper, we document this particular …Embodied Cognition is a wide-ranging research program drawing from and inspiring work in psychology, neuroscience, ethology, philosophy, linguistics, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Whereas traditional cognitive science also encompasses these disciplines, it finds common purpose in a conception of mind wedded to computationalism: mental ...Causal determinism is, roughly speaking, the idea that every event is necessitated by antecedent events and conditions together with the laws of nature. The idea is ancient, but first became subject to clarification and mathematical analysis in the eighteenth century. Determinism is deeply connected with our understanding of the physical ...Oct 22, 2002 · Intrinsic value has traditionally been thought to lie at the heart of ethics. Philosophers use a number of terms to refer to such value. The intrinsic value of something is said to be the value that that thing has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right.”. Extrinsic value is value that is not ... Bell’s Theorem is the collective name for a family of results, all of which involve the derivation, from a condition on probability distributions inspired by considerations of local causality, together with auxiliary assumptions usually thought of as mild side-assumptions, of probabilistic predictions about the results of spatially separated ...Dewey’s Political Philosophy. First published Wed Feb 9, 2005; substantive revision Thu Feb 9, 2023. John Dewey (1859–1952) was an American philosopher, associated with pragmatism. His immense philosophical and other written output encompasses most areas of philosophy as well as a host of other educational, social and political concerns.Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon (1561–1626) was one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the early modern era. As a lawyer, member of Parliament, and Queen's Counsel, Bacon wrote on questions of law, state and religion, as well as on ...... Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) and Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. They appear here via special arrangement with Philosophical Percolations ...Truth is one of the central subjects in philosophy. It is also one of the largest. Truth has been a topic of discussion in its own right for thousands of years. Moreover, a huge variety of issues in philosophy relate to truth, either by relying on theses about truth, or implying theses about truth. It would be impossible to survey all there is ...First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Sat Feb 12, 2022. Plato (429?–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy.Mar 8, 2005 · Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School. Personal Identity. Personal identity deals with philosophical questions that arise about ourselves by virtue of our being people (or as lawyers and philosophers like to say, persons ). This contrasts with questions about ourselves that arise by virtue of our being living things, conscious beings, moral agents, or material objects.Dewey’s Political Philosophy. First published Wed Feb 9, 2005; substantive revision Thu Feb 9, 2023. John Dewey (1859–1952) was an American philosopher, associated with pragmatism. His immense philosophical and other written output encompasses most areas of philosophy as well as a host of other educational, social and political concerns.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University.First published Mon Oct 15, 2012; substantive revision Thu May 26, 2022 Process philosophy is based on the premise that being is dynamic and that the dynamic nature of …First published Tue Aug 3, 2004; substantive revision Fri Aug 12, 2022. Peter Abelard (1079–21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician.Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. online philosophy encyclopedia. SEP; Stamford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In more languages. Spanish. Stanford Encyclopedia ...The word ‘pluralism’ generally refers to the view that there are many of the things in question (concepts, scientific world views, discourses, viewpoints etc.) The issues arising from there being many differ widely from subject area to subject area. This entry is concerned with moral pluralism—the view that there are many different moral ...First published Fri Sep 7, 2007; substantive revision Tue Feb 2, 2021. Aristotle’s Categories is a singularly important work of philosophy. It not only presents the backbone of Aristotle’s own philosophical theorizing but has exerted an unparalleled influence on the systems of many of the greatest philosophers in the western tradition.First published Fri Sep 7, 2007; substantive revision Tue Feb 2, 2021. Aristotle’s Categories is a singularly important work of philosophy. It not only presents the backbone of Aristotle’s own philosophical theorizing but has exerted an unparalleled influence on the systems of many of the greatest philosophers in the western tradition.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date...A Greek philosopher of Ephesus (near modern Kuşadası, Turkey) who was active around 500 BCE, Heraclitus propounded a distinctive theory which he expressed in oracular language. He is best known for his doctrines that things are constantly changing (universal flux), that opposites coincide (unity of opposites), and that fire is the basic ...22.7.2015 ... 64-69. Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/9v640/stanford-encyclopedia-of-philosophy-entry ...First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Sat Feb 12, 2022. Plato (429?–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in …7.4.2016 ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy puts other big name internet encyclopedias to shame.al-Ghazali. First published Tue Aug 14, 2007; substantive revision Fri May 8, 2020. Al-Ghazâlî ( c .1056–1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam. He was active at a time when Sunni theology had just passed through its consolidation and entered a period of intense ...Covers all aspects of Philosophy and Religion. Resource URL. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Type. Dictionaries & Encyclopedias. Subjects.Theology presupposes Christian faith, which is an affective response to Christ, and which requires “confidence and assurance of heart” ( Institutes 3.2.33). Yet scholastic philosophy, with its “endless labyrinths” and “obscure definitions”, has “drawn a veil over Christ to hide him” ( Institutes 3.2.2).The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) is the premier reference work in philosophy, and covers an enormous range of philosophical topics through in-depth entries. Under the leadership of Co-Principal Editors, Edward N. Zalta …Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of March 2018, has nearly 1600 entries online. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up-to-date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished ...Innateness and Language. First published Wed Jan 16, 2008. The philosophical debate over innate ideas and their role in the acquisition of knowledge has a venerable history. It is thus surprising that very little attention was paid until early last century to the questions of how linguistic knowledge is acquired and what role, if any, innate ...Sounds. First published Thu Jul 14, 2005; substantive revision Fri Apr 10, 2020. Philosophy of perception typically centered on colors, as did the metaphysics of mind when discussing the mind-dependence of secondary qualities. Possibly, the philosophical privilege of the visible just reflects the cognitive privilege of the visible—as vision ...have since 1995 been developing and implementing the concept of a dynamic reference work (DRW) to provide a solution to these problems, while maintaining.First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Sat Feb 12, 2022. Plato (429?–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy.May 1, 2001 · Aristotle describes ethical virtue as a “ hexis ” (“state” “condition” “disposition”)—a tendency or disposition, induced by our habits, to have appropriate feelings (1105b25–6). Defective states of character are hexeis (plural of hexis) as well, but they are tendencies to have inappropriate feelings. Aug 30, 2003 · Creationism. First published Sat Aug 30, 2003; substantive revision Fri Sep 21, 2018. At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Such a deity is generally thought to be “transcendent” meaning beyond human experience, and constantly ... Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints. One has negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to one in this negative sense. Positive liberty is the possibility of acting — or the fact of acting — in such a way as to take control of one’s life and realize one’s fundamental purposes.May 20, 2003 · Act consequentialism is the claim that an act is morally right if and only if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greater than this net amount for any incompatible act available to the agent on that occasion. (Cf. Moore 1912, chs. 1–2.) The argument from unknowable (or not easily knowable) propositions: certain sorts of propositions cannot be known (without special measures); given closure, they could be known (without special measures), by deducing them from mundane claims we known, so knowledge is not closed. The argument from skepticism: skepticism is false but it …Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking. First published Thu Jul 24, 2003; substantive revision Tue Aug 1, 2023. Symmetry considerations dominate modern fundamental physics, both in quantum theory and in relativity. Philosophers are now beginning to devote increasing attention to such issues as the significance of gauge …Deontological Ethics. First published Wed Nov 21, 2007; substantive revision Fri Oct 30, 2020. The word deontology derives from the Greek words for duty ( deon) and science (or study) of ( logos ). In contemporary moral philosophy, deontology is one of those kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required, …Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints. One has negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to one in this negative sense. Positive liberty is the possibility of acting — or the fact of acting — in such a way as to take control of one’s life and realize one’s fundamental purposes.Possible Worlds and Modal Logic. Although ‘possible world’ has been part of the philosophical lexicon at least since Leibniz, the notion became firmly entrenched in contemporary philosophy with the development of possible world semantics for the languages of propositional and first-order modal logic. In addition to the usual sentence ...Philosophy of History. First published Sun Feb 18, 2007; substantive revision Tue Nov 24, 2020. The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It raises the possibility of “learning ...Kevin N. Cawley (University College Cork) Philosophy of Language: Jeffrey C. King (Rutgers University) Ben Caplan (University of Kansas) Elisabeth Camp (Rutgers University) Robin Jeshion (University of Southern California) Ofra Magidor (Oxford University) Latin American and Iberian Philosophy: Otávio Bueno (University of Miami) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. [1] [2] It is maintained by Stanford University. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many ...After the death of his son, Leland Stanford set up all of his money to go to the Stanford University, which he helped create, to the miners of California and the railroad. The school that Leland and his wife built in memory of their son, wh...Research philosophy is the development of logical reasoning that incorporates contemporary ideas with previously established methods of thought through structural phases.Creationism. First published Sat Aug 30, 2003; substantive revision Fri Sep 21, 2018. At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Such a deity is generally thought to be “transcendent” meaning beyond human experience, and constantly .... In the philosophy of mind, dualism is the theory that the mentaSocial norms, the informal rules that govern b Aristotle: Ethics: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Richard Kraut · Philosophy. Research output: Other contribution.Philosophy for Children. First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Fri May 27, 2022. In the United States, philosophy typically makes its formal entry into the curriculum at the college level. A growing number of high schools offer some introduction to philosophy, often in special literature courses for college bound students. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from a Jul 1, 2003 · One of the ways that non-human animals negotiate their social environments is by being particularly attentive to the emotional states of others around them. When a conspecific is angry, it is a good idea to get out of his way. Animals that develop life-long bonds are known to suffer from the death of their partners. Neoliberalism holds that a society’s political and economic institutio...

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